AN ACT RELATING TO TRADE-MARKS AND UNFAIR COMPETITION

R.S.C. 1985, c. T-13

Short Title

Section 1. Short title

This Act may be cited as the Trade-marks Act.

Interpretation

Section 2. Definitions

In this Act,

"certification mark" means a mark that is used for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish wares or services that are of a defined standard with respect to

from wares or services that are not of that defined standard;

"confusing", when applied as an adjective to a trade-mark or trade-name, means a trade-mark or trade-name the use of which would cause confusion in the manner and circumstances described in section 6;

"Convention" means the Convention of the Union of Paris made on March 20, 1883 and any amendments and revisions thereof made before or after July 1, 1954 to which Canada is party;

"country of origin" means

"country of the Union" means

"distinctive", in relation to a trade-mark, means a trade-mark that actually distinguishes the wares or services in association with which it is used by its owner from the wares or services of others or is adapted so to distinguish them;

"distinguishing guise" means

the appearance of which is used by a person for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish wares or services manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by him from those manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by others;

"geographical indication" means, in respect of a wine or spirit, an indication that

"owner", in relation to a certification mark, means the person by whom the defined standard has been established;

"package" includes any container or holder ordinarily associated with wares at the time of the transfer of the property in or possession of the wares in the course of trade;

"person" includes any lawful trade union and any lawful association engaged in trade or business or the promotion thereof, and the administrative authority of any country, state, province, municipality or other organized administrative area;

"person interested" includes any person who is affected or reasonably apprehends that he may be affected by any entry in the register, or by any act or omission or contemplated act or omission under or contrary to this Act, and includes the Attorney General of Canada;

"prescribed" means prescribed by or under the regulations;

"proposed trade-mark" means a mark that is proposed to be used by a person for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish wares or services manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by him from those manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by others;

"protected geographical indication" means a geographical indication that is on the list kept pursuant to subsection 11.12(1);

"register" means the register kept under section 26;

"registered trade-mark" means a trade-mark that is on the register;

"Registrar" means the Registrar of Trade-marks appointed under section 63;

"related companies" means companies that are members of a group of two or more companies one of which, directly or indirectly, owns or controls a majority of the issued voting stock of the others;

"representative for service" means the person or firm named under paragraph 30(g), subsection 38(3), paragraph 41(1)(a) or subsection 42(1);

"trade-mark" means

"trade-name" means the name under which any business is carried on, whether or not it is the name of a corporation, a partnership or an individual;

"use", in relation to a trade-mark, means any use that by section 4 is deemed to be a use in association with wares or services;

"wares" includes printed publications;

"WTO Agreement" has the meaning given to the word "Agreement" by subsection 2(1) of the World Trade Organization Agreement Implementation Act;

"WTO Member" means a Member of the World Trade Organization established by Article I of the WTO Agreement.

Section 3. When deemed to be adopted

A trade-mark is deemed to have been adopted by a person when that person or his predecessor in title commenced to use it in Canada or to make it known in Canada or, if that person or his predecessor had not previously so used it or made it known, when that person or his predecessor filed an application for its registration in Canada.

Section 4.  

(1) When deemed to be used

  A trade-mark is deemed to be used in association with wares if, at the time of the transfer of the property in or possession of the wares, in the normal course of trade, it is marked on the wares themselves or on the packages in which they are distributed or it is in any other manner so associated with the wares that notice of the association is then given to the person to whom the property or possession is transferred.

(2) Idem

  A trade-mark is deemed to be used in association with services if it is used or displayed in the performance or advertising of those services.

(3) Use by export

  A trade-mark that is marked in Canada on wares or on the packages in which they are contained is, when the wares are exported from Canada, deemed to be used in Canada in association with those wares.

Section 5. When deemed to be made known

A trade-mark is deemed to be made known in Canada by a person only if it is used by that person in a country of the Union, other than Canada, in association with wares or services, and

and it has become well known in Canada by reason of the distribution or advertising.

Section 6.  

(1) When mark or name confusing

  For the purposes of this Act, a trade-mark or trade-name is confusing with another trade-mark or trade-name if the use of the first mentioned trade-mark or trade-name would cause confusion with the last mentioned trade-mark or trade-name in the manner and circumstances described in this section.

(2) Idem

  The use of a trade-mark causes confusion with another trade-mark if the use of both trade-marks in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the wares or services associated with those trade-marks are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the same general class.

(3) Idem

  The use of a trade-mark causes confusion with a trade-name if the use of both the trade-mark and trade-name in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the wares or services associated with the trade-mark and those associated with the business carried on under the trade-name are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the same general class.

(4) Idem

  The use of a trade-name causes confusion with a trade-mark if the use of both the trade-name and trade-mark in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the wares or services associated with the business carried on under the trade-name and those associated with the trade-mark are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the same general class.

(5) What to be considered

  In determining whether trade-marks or trade-names are confusing, the court or the Registrar, as the case may be, shall have regard to all the surrounding circumstances including

Unfair Competition and Prohibited Marks

Section 7. Prohibitions

No person shall

Section 8. Warranty of lawful use

Every person who in the course of trade transfers the property in or the possession of any wares bearing, or in packages bearing, any trade-mark or trade-name shall, unless before the transfer he otherwise expressly states in writing, be deemed to warrant, to the person to whom the property or possession is transferred, that the trade-mark or trade-name has been and may be lawfully used in connection with the wares.

Section 9.  

(1) Prohibited marks

  No person shall adopt in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise, any mark consisting of, or so nearly resembling as to be likely to be mistaken for,

(2) Excepted uses

   

Nothing in this section prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of any mark

Section 10. Further prohibitions

Where any mark has by ordinary and bona fide commercial usage become recognized in Canada as designating the kind, quality, quantity, destination, value, place of origin or date of production of any wares or services, no person shall adopt it as a trade-mark in association with such wares or services or others of the same general class or use it in a way likely to mislead, nor shall any person so adopt or so use any mark so nearly resembling that mark as to be likely to be mistaken therefor.

Section 10.1 Further prohibitions

Where a denomination must, under the Plant Breeders' Rights Act, be used to designate a plant variety, no person shall adopt it as a trade-mark in association with the plant variety or another plant variety of the same species or use it in a way likely to mislead, nor shall any person so adopt or so use any mark so nearly resembling that denomination as to be likely to be mistaken therefor.

Section 11. Further prohibitions

No person shall use in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise, any mark adopted contrary to section 9 or 10 of this Act or section 13 or 14 of the Unfair Competition Act, chapter 274 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952.

Section 11.1 Further prohibitions

No person shall use in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise, any denomination adopted contrary to section 10.1.

Section 11.11 Definitions

In sections 11.12 to 11.2,

"Minister" means the member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada designated as the Minister for the purposes of section 11.12 to 11.2;

"responsible authority" means, in relation to a wine or spirit, the person, firm or other entity that, in the opinion of the Minister, is, by reason of state or commercial interest, sufficiently connected with and knowledgeable of that wine or spirit to be a party to any proceedings in respect of an objection filed under subsection 11.13(1).

Section 11.12  

(1) List

  There shall be kept under the supervision of the Registrar a list of geographical indications.

(2) Statement of Minister

  Where a statement by the Minister, setting out in respect of an indication the information mentioned in subsection (3), is published in the Canada Gazette and

  the Registrar shall enter the indication on the list of geogaphical indications kept pursuant to subsection (1).

(3) Information

  For the purposes of subsection (2), the statement by the Minister must set out the following information in respect of an indication:

(4) Removal from list

  The Registrar shall remove an indication from the list of geographical indications kept pursuant to subsection (1) on the publication in the Canada Gazette of a statement by the Minister that the indication is to be removed.

Section 11.13  

(1) Statement of objection

  Within three months after the publication in the Canada Gazette of a statement referred to in subsection 11.12(2), any person interested may, on payment of the prescribed fee, file with the Registrar, and serve on the responsible authority in the prescribed manner, a statement of objection.

(2) Ground

  A statement of objection may be based only on the ground that the indication is not a geographical indication.

(3) Content

  A statement of objection shall set out

(4) Counter statement

  Within three months after a statement of objection has been served on the responsible authority, the responsible authority may file a counter statement with the Registrar and serve a copy on the objector in the prescribed manner, and if the responsible authority does not so file and serve a counter statement, the indication shall not be entered on the list of geographical indications.

(5) Evidence and hearing

  Both the objector and the responsible authority shall be given an opportunity, in the manner prescribed, to submit evidence and to make representations to Registrar unless

(6) Withdrawal of objection

  The objection shall be deemed to have been withdrawn if, in the prescribed circumstances, the objector does not submit evidence or a statement that the objector does not wish to submit evidence.

(7) Decision

  After considering the evidence and representations of the objector and the responsible authority, the Registrar shall decide that the indication is not a geographical indication or reject the objection, and notify the parties of the decision and the reasons for the decision.

Section 11.14  

(1) Prohibited adoption of indication for wines

  No person shall adopt in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise,

(2) Prohibited use

  No person shall use in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise,

Section 11.15  

(1) Prohibited adoption of indication for spirits

  No person shall adopt in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise,

(2) Prohibited use

  No person shall use in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise,

Section 11.16  

(1) Exception for personal names

  Sections 11.14 and 11.15 do not prevent a person from using, in the course of trade, that person's name or the name of the person's predecessor-in-title, exept where the name is used in such a manner as to mislead the public.

(2) Exception for comparative advertising

  Subject to subsection (3), sections 11.14 and 11.15 do not prevent a person from using a protected geographical indication in comparative advertising in respect of a wine or spirit.

(3) Exception not applicable to packaging

  Subsection (2) does not apply to comparative advertising on labels or packaging associated with a wine or spirit.

Section 11.17  

(1) Continued use

  Where a Canadian has used a protected geographical indication in a continuous manner in relation to any business or commercial activity in respect of goods or services

  section 11.14 or 11.15, as the case may be, does not apply to any continued or similar use by that Canadian.

(2) Definition of "Canadian"

  For the purposes of this section, "Canadian" includes

Section 11.18  

(1) Exception for disuse

  Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of a protected geographical indication identifying a wine or spirit if the indication has ceased to be protected by the laws applicable to the WTO Member for which the indication is protected, or has fallen into disuse in that Member.

(2) Exceptions for customary names

  Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of an indication in respect of a wine or spirit

(3) Exception for generic names for wines

  Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of the following indications in respect of wines:

(4) Exception for generic names for spirits

  Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of the following indications in respect of spirits:

(5) Governor in Council amendment

  The Governor in Council may, by order, amend subsection (3) or (4) by adding thereto or deleting therefrom an indication in respect of a wine or spirit, as the case may be.

Section 11.19  

(1) Exception for failure to take proceedings

  Sections 11.14 and 11.15 do not apply to the adoption or use of a trade-mark by a person if no proceedings are taken to enforce those sections in respect of that person's use or adoption of the trade-mark within five years after use of the trade-mark by that person or that person's predecessor-in-title has become generally known in Canada or the trade-mark has been registered by that person in Canada, unless it is established that that person or that person's predecessor-in-title first used or adopted the trade-mark with knowledge that such use or adoption was contrary to section 11.14 or 11.15, as the case may be.

(2) Idem

  In proceedings respecting a registered trade-mark commenced after the expiration of five years from the earlier of the date of registration of the trade-mark in Canada and the date on which use of the trade-mark by the person who filed the application for registration of the trade-mark or that person's predecessor-in-title has become generally known in Canada, the registration shall not be expunged or amended or held invalid on the basis of paragraph 12(1)(g) or (h) unless it is established that the person who filed the application for registration of the trade-mark did so with knowledge that the trade-mark was in whole or in part a protected geographical indication.

Section 11.2 Transitional

Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), where a person has in good faith

before the later of the date on which this section comes into force and the date on which protection in respect of the wine or spirit by the laws applicable to that Member commences, nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration of that trade-mark by that person.

Registrable Trade-Marks

Section 12.  

(1) When trade-mark registrable

  Subject to section 13, a trade-mark is registrable if it is not

(2) Idem

  A trade-mark that is not registrable by reason of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is registrable if it has been so used in Canada by the applicant or his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of filing an application for its registration.

Section 13.  

(1) When distinguishing guises registrable

  A distinguishing guise is registrable only if

(2) Effect of registration

  No registration of a distinguishing guise interferes with the use of any utilitarian feature embodied in the distinguishing guise.

(3) Not to limit art or industry

  The registration of a distinguishing guise may be expunged by the Federal Court on the application of any interested person if the Court decides that the registration has become likely unreasonably to limit the development of any art or industry.

Section 14.  

(1) Registration of marks registered abroad

  Notwithstanding section 12, a trade-mark that the applicant or the applicant's predecessor in title has caused to be duly registered in or for the country of origin of the applicant is registrable if, in Canada

(2) Trade-marks regarded as registered abroad

  A trade-mark that differs from the trade-mark registered in the country of origin only by elements that do not alter its distinctive character or affect its identity in the form under which it is registered in the country of origin shall be regarded for the purpose of subsection (1) as the trade-mark so registered.

Section 15.  

(1) Registration of confusing marks

  Notwithstanding section 12 or 14, confusing trade-marks are registrable if the applicant is the owner of all such trade-marks, which shall be known as associated trade-marks.

(2) Record

  On the registration of any trade-mark associated with any other registered trade-mark, a note of the registration of each trade-mark shall be made on the record of registration of the other trade-mark.

(3) Amendment

  No amendment of the register recording any change in the ownership or in the name or address of the owner of any one of a group of associated trade-marks shall be made unless the Registrar is satisfied that the same change has occurred with respect to all the trade-marks in the group, and corresponding entries are made contemporaneously with respect to all those trade-marks.

Persons Entitled to Registration of Trade-Marks

Section 16.  

(1) Registration of marks used or made known in Canada

  Any applicant who has filed an application in accordance with section 30 for registration of a trade-mark that is registrable and that he or his predecessor in title has used in Canada or made known in Canada in association with wares or services is entitled, subject to section 38, to secure its registration in respect of those wares or services, unless at the date on which he or his predecessor in title first so used it or made it known it was confusing with

(2) Marks registered and used abroad

  Any applicant who has filed an application in accordance with section 30 for registration of a trade-mark that is registrable and that the applicant or the applicant's precedessor in title has duly registered in or for the country of origin of the applicant and has used in association with wares or services is entitled, subject to section 38, to secure its registration in respect of the wares or services in association with which it is registered in that country and has been used, unless at the date of filing of the application in accordance with section 30 it was confusing with

(3) Proposed marks

  Any applicant who has filed an application in accordance with section 30 for registration of a proposed trade-mark that is registrable is entitled, subject to sections 38 and 40, to secure its registration in respect of the wares or services specified in the application, unless at the date of filing of the application it was confusing with

(4) Where application for confusing mark pending

  The right of an applicant to secure registration of a registrable trade-mark is not affected by the previous filing of an application for registration of a confusing trade-mark by another person, unless the application for registration of the confusing trade-mark was pending at the date of advertisement of the applicant's application in accordance with section 37.

(5) Previous use or making known

  The right of an applicant to secure registration of a registrable trade-mark is not affected by the previous use or making known of a confusing trade-mark or trade-name by another person, if the confusing trade-mark or trade-name was abandoned at the date of advertisement of the applicant's application in accordance with section 37.

Validity and Effect of Registration

Section 17.  

(1) Effect of registration in relation to previous use, etc.

  No application for registration of a trade-mark that has been advertised in accordance with section 37 shall be refused and no registration of a trade-mark shall be expunged or amended or held invalid on the ground of any previous use or making known of a confusing trade-mark or trade-name by a person other than the applicant for that registration or his predecessor in title, except at the instance of that other person or his successor in title, and the burden lies on that other person or his successor to establish that he had not abandoned the confusing trade-mark or trade-name at the date of advertisement of the applicant's application.

(2) When registration incontestable

  In proceedings commenced after the expiration of five years from the date of registration of a trade-mark or from July 1, 1954, whichever is the later, no registration shall be expunged or amended or held invalid on the ground of the previous use or making known referred to in subsection (1), unless it is established that the person who adopted the registered trade-mark in Canada did so with knowledge of that previous use or making known.

Section 18.  

(1) When registration invalid

  The registration of a trade-mark is invalid if

  and subject to section 17, it is invalid if the applicant for registration was not the person entitled to secure the registration.

(2) Exception

  No registration of a trade-mark that had been so used in Canada by the registrant or his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of registration shall be held invalid merely on the ground that evidence of the distinctiveness was not submitted to the competent authority or tribunal before the grant of the registration.

Section 19. Rights conferred by registration

Subject to sections 21, 32 and 67, the registration of a trade-mark in respect of any wares or services, unless shown to be invalid, gives to the owner of the trade-mark the exclusive right to the use throughout Canada of the trade-mark in respect of those wares or services.

Section 20.  

(1) Infringement

  The right of the owner of a registered trade-mark to its exclusive use shall be deemed to be infringed by a person not entitled to its use under this Act who sells, distributes or advertises wares or services in association with a confusing trade-mark or trade-name, but no registration of a trade-mark prevents a person from making

  in such a manner as is not likely to have the effect of depreciating the value of the goodwill attaching to the trade-mark.

(2) Exception

  No registration of a trade-mark prevents a person from making any use of any of the indications mentioned in subsection 11.18(3) in association with a wine or any of the indications mentioned in subsection 11.18(4) in association with a spirit.

Section 21.  

(1) Concurrent use of confusing marks

  Where, in any proceedings respecting a registered trade-mark the registration of which is entitled to the protection of subsection 17(2), it is made to appear to the Federal Court that one of the parties to the proceedings, other than the registered owner of the trade-mark, had in good faith used a confusing trade-mark or trade-name in Canada before the date of filing of the application for that registration, and the Court considers that it is not contrary to the public interest that the continued use of the confusing trade-mark or trade-name should be permitted in a defined territorial area concurrently with the use of the registered trade-mark, the Court may, subject to such terms as it deems just, order that the other party may continue to use the confusing trade-mark or trade-name within that area with an adequate specified distinction from the registered trade-mark.

(2) Registration of order

  The rights conferred by an order made under subsection (1) take effect only if, within three months from its date, the other party makes application to the Registrar to enter it on the register in connection with the registration of the registered trade-mark.

Section 22.  

(1) Depreciation of goodwill

  No person shall use a trade-mark registered by another person in a manner that is likely to have the effect of depreciating the value of the goodwill attaching thereto.

(2) Action in respect thereof

  In any action in respect of a use of a trade-mark contrary to subsection (1), the court may decline to order the recovery of damages or profits and may permit the defendant to continue to sell wares marked with the trade-mark that were in his possession or under his control at the time notice was given to him that the owner of the registered trade-mark complained of the use of the trade-mark.

Certification Marks

Section 23.  

(1) Registration of certification marks

  A certification mark may be adopted and registered only by a person who is not engaged in the manufacture, sale, leasing or hiring of wares or the performance of services such as those in association with which the certification mark is used.

(2) Licence

  The owner of a certification mark may license others to use the mark in association with wares or services that meet the defined standard, and the use of the mark accordingly shall be deemed to be use thereof by the owner.

(3) Unauthorized use

  The owner of a registered certification mark may prevent its use by unlicensed persons or in association with any wares or services in respect of which the mark is registered but to which the licence does not extend.

(4) Action by unincorporated body

  Where the owner of a registered certification mark is an unincorporated body, any action or proceeding to prevent unauthorized use of the mark may be brought by any member of that body on behalf of himself and all other members thereof.

Section 24. Registration of trade-mark confusing with certification mark

With the consent of the owner of a certification mark, a trade-mark confusing with the certification mark may, if it exhibits an appropriate difference, be registered by some other person to indicate that the wares or services in association with which it is used have been manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by him as one of the persons entitled to use the certification mark, but the registration thereof shall be expunged by the Registrar on the withdrawal at any time of the consent of the owner of the certification mark or on the cancellation of the registration of the certification mark.

Section 25. Descriptive certification mark

A certification mark descriptive of the place of origin of wares or services, and not confusing with any registered trade-mark, is registrable if the applicant is the administrative authority of a country, state, province or municipality including or forming part of the area indicated by the mark, or is a commercial association having an office or representative in that area, but the owner of any mark registered under this section shall permit the use of the mark in association with any wares or services produced or performed in the area of which the mark is descriptive.

Register of Trade-Marks

Section 26.  

(1) Register

  There shall be kept under the supervision of the Registrar

(2) Information to be shown

  The register referred to in paragraph (1)(a) shall show, with reference to each registered trade-mark, the following:

Section 27.  

(1) Register under Unfair Competition Act

  The register kept under the Unfair Competition Act, chapter 274 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952, forms part of the register kept under this Act and, subject to subsection 44(2), no entry made therein, if properly made according to the law in force at the time it was made, is subject to be expunged or amended only because it might not properly have been made pursuant to this Act.

(2) Trade-marks registered before Unfair Competition Act

  Trade-marks on the register on September 1, 1932 shall be treated as design marks or word marks as defined in the Unfair Competition Act, chapter 274 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952, according to the following rules:

(3) Trade-marks registered under Unfair Competition Act

  Trade-marks registered under the Unfair Competition Act, chapter 274 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952, shall, in accordance with their registration, continue to be treated as design marks or word marks as defined in that Act.

Section 28.  

(1) Indexes

  There shall be kept under the supervision of the Registrar

(2) List of trade-mark agents

  The list of trade-mark agents shall include the names of all persons and firms entitled to represent applicants in the presentation and prosecution of applications for the registration of a trade-mark or in other business before the Trade-marks Office.

Section 29.  

(1) Inspection

  Subject to subsection (2), the registers, the documents on which the entries therein are based, all applications, including those abandoned, the indexes, the list of trade-mark agents and the list of geographical indications kept pursuant to subsection 11.12(1) shall be open to public inspection during business hours, and the Registrar shall, on request and on payment of the prescribed fee, furnish a copy certified by the registrar of any entry in the registers, indexes or lists, or of any of those documents or applications.

(2) Register of registered users

  The disclosure of documents on which entries in the register required to be kept under paragraph 26(1)(b) are based is subject to the provisions of subsection 50(6), as it reads immediately before section 61 of the Intellectual Property Law Improvement Act comes into force.

Applications for Registration of Trade-Marks

Section 30. Contents of application

An applicant for the registration of a trade-mark shall file with the Registrar an application containing

Section 31.  

(1) Applications based on registration abroad

  An applicant whose right to registration of a trade-mark is based on a registration of the trade-mark in another country of the Union shall, before the date of advertisement of his application in accordance with section 37, furnish a copy of the registration certified by the office in which it was made, together with a translation thereof into English or French if it is in any other language, and such other evidence as the Registrar may require to establish fully his right to registration under this Act.

(2) Evidence required in certain cases

  An applicant whose trade-mark has been duly registered in his country of origin and who claims that the trade-mark is registrable under paragraph 14(1)(b) shall furnish such evidence as the Registrar may require by way of affidavit or statutory declaration establishing the circumstances on which he relies, including the length of time during which the trade-mark has been used in any country.

Section 32.  

(1) Further information in certain cases

  An applicant who claims that his trade-mark is registrable under subsection 12(2) or section 13 shall furnish the Registrar with evidence by way of affidavit or statutory declaration establishing the extent to which and the time during which the trade-mark has been used in Canada and with any other evidence that the Registrar may require in support of the claim.

(2) Registration to be restricted

  The Registrar shall, having regard to the evidence adduced, restrict the registration to the wares or services in association with which the trade-mark is shown to have been so used as to have become distinctive and to the defined territorial area in Canada in which the trade-mark is shown to have become distinctive.

Section 33. Applications by trade unions, etc.

Every trade union or commercial association that applies for the registration of a trade-mark may be required to furnish satisfactory evidence that its existence is not contrary to the laws of the country in which its headquarters are situated.

Section 34.  

(1) Date of application abroad deemed date of application in Canada

  When an application for the registration of a trade-mark has been made in or for any country of the Union other than Canada and an application is subsequently made in Canada for the registration for use in association with the same kind of wares or services of the same or substantially the same trade-mark by the same applicant or the applicant's successor in title, the date of filing of the application in or for the other country is deemed to be the date of filing of the application in Canada, and the applicant is entitled to priority in Canada accordingly notwithstanding any intervening use in Canada or making known in Canada or any intervening application or registration if

(2) Evidence requests

  The Registrar may request the evidence before the day on which the application is allowed pursuant to section 39.

(3) How and when evidence must be furnished

  The Registrar may specify in the request the manner in which the evidence must be furnished and the period within which it must be furnished.

Section 35. Disclaimer

The Registrar may require an applicant for registration of a trade-mark to disclaim the right to the exclusive use apart from the trade-mark of such portion of the trade-mark as is not independently registrable, but the disclaimer does not prejudice or affect the applicant's rights then existing or thereafter arising in the disclaimed matter, nor does the disclaimer prejudice or affect the applicant's right to registration on a subsequent application if the disclaimed matter has then become distinctive of the applicant's wares or services.

Section 36. Abandonment

Where, in the opinion of the Registrar, an applicant is in default in the prosecution of an application filed under this Act or any Act relating to trade-marks in force prior to July 1, 1954, the Registrar may, after giving notice to the applicant of the default, treat the application as abandoned unless the default is remedied within the time specified in the notice.

Section 37.  

(1) When applications to be refused

  The Registrar shall refuse an application for the registration of a trade-mark if he is satisfied that

  and where the Registrar is not so satisfied, he shall cause the application to be advertised in the manner prescribed.

(2) Notice to applicant

  The Registrar shall not refuse any application without first notifying the applicant of his objections thereto and his reasons for those objections, and giving the applicant adequate opportunity to answer those objections.

(3) Doubtful cases

  Where the Registrar, by reason of a registered trade-mark, is in doubt whether the trade-mark claimed in the application is registrable, he shall, by registered letter, notify the owner of the registered trade-mark of the advertisement of the application.

Section 38.  

(1) Statement of opposition

  Within two months after the advertisement of an application for the registration of a trade-mark, any person may, on payment of the prescribed fee, file a statement of opposition with the Registrar.

(2) Grounds

  A statement of opposition may be based on any of the following grounds:

(3) Content

  A statement of opposition shall set out

(4) Frivolous opposition

  If the Registrar considers that the opposition does not raise a substantial issue for decision, he shall reject it and shall give notice of his decision to the opponent.

(5) Substantial issue

  If the Registrar considers that the opposition raises a substantial issue for decision, he shall forward a copy of the statement of opposition to the applicant.

(6) Counter statement

  The applicant shall file a counter statement with the Registrar and serve a copy on the opponent in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time after a copy of the statement of opposition has been served on the applicant.

(7) Evidence and hearing

  Both the opponent and the applicant shall be given an opportunity, in the prescribed manner, to submit evidence and to make representations to the Registrar unless

(7.1) Withdrawal of opposition

  The opposition shall be deemed to have been withdrawn if, in the prescribed circumstances, the opponent does not submit either evidence under subsection (7) or a statement that the opponent does not wish to submit evidence.

(7.2) Abandonment of application

  The application shall be deemed to have been abandoned if the applicant does not file and serve a counter statement within the time referred to in subsection (6) or if, in the prescribed circumstances, the applicant does not submit either evidence under subsection (7) or a statement that the applicant does not wish to submit evidence.

(8) Decision

  After considering the evidence and representations of the opponent and the applicant, the Registrar shall refuse the application or reject the opposition and notify the parties of the decision and the reasons for the decision.

Section 39.  

(1) When application to be allowed

  When an application for the registration of a trade-mark either has not been opposed and the time for the filing of a statement of opposition has expired or it has been opposed and the opposition has been decided in favour of the applicant, the Registrar shall allow the application or, if an appeal is taken, shall act in accordance with the final judgment given in the appeal.

(2) No extension of time

  Subject to subsection (3), the Registrar shall not extend the time for filing a statement of opposition with respect to any application that has been allowed.

(3) Exception

  Where the Registrar has allowed an application without considering a previously filed request for an extension of time to file a statement of opposition, the Registrar may withdraw the application from allowance at any time before issuing a certificate of registration and, in accordance with section 47, extend the time for filing a statement of opposition.

Section 40.  

(1) Registration of trade-marks

  When an application for registration of a trade-mark, other than a proposed trade-mark, is allowed, the Registrar shall register the trade-mark and issue a certificate of its registration.

(2) Proposed trade-mark

  When an application for registration of a proposed trade-mark is allowed, the Registrar shall give notice to the applicant accordingly and shall register the trade-mark and issue a certificate of registration on receipt of a declaration that the use of the trade-mark in Canada, in association with the wares or services specified in the application, has been commenced by

(3) Abandonment of application

  An application for registration of a proposed trade-mark shall be deemed to be abandoned if the Registrar has not received the declaration referred to in subsection (2) before the later of

(4) Form and effect

  Registration of a trade-mark shall be made in the name of the applicant therefor or his transferee, and the day on which registration is made shall be entered on the register, and the registration takes effect on that day.

(5) Section 34 does not apply

  For the purposes of subsection (3), section 34 does not apply in determining when an application for registration is filed.

Amendment of the Register

Section 41.  

(1) Amendments to register

  The Registrar may, on application by the registered owner of a trade-mark made in the prescribed manner, make any of the following amendments to the register:

(2) Conditions

  An application to extend the statement of wares or services in respect of which a trade-mark is registered has the effect of an application for registration of the trade-mark in respect of the wares or services specified in the application for amendment.

Section 42.  

(1) Representative for service

  The registered owner of a trade-mark who has no office or place of business in Canada shall name another representative for service in place of the latest recorded representative or supply a new and correct address of the latest recorded representative on notice from the Registrar that the latest recorded representative has died or that a letter addressed to him at the latest recorded address and sent by ordinary mail has been returned undelivered.

(2) Change of address

  When, after the dispatch of the notice referred to in subsection (1) by the Registrar, no new nomination is made or no new and correct address is supplied by the registered owner within three months, the Registrar or the Federal Court may dispose of any proceedings under this Act without requiring service on the registered owner of any process therein.

Section 43. Additional representations

The registered owner of any trade-mark shall furnish such additional representations thereof as the Registrar may by notice demand and, if he fails to comply with that notice, the Registrar may by a further notice, fix a reasonable time after which, if the representations are not furnished, he may expunge the registration of the trade-mark.

Section 44.  

(1) Notice for information

  The Registrar may at any time, and shall at the request of any person who pays the prescribed fee, by notice in writing require the registered owner of any trade-mark that was on the register on July 1, 1954 to furnish him within three months from the date of the notice with the information that would be required on an application for the registration of the trade-mark made at the date of the notice.

(2) Amendments to register

  The Registrar may amend the registration of the trade-mark in accordance with the information furnished to him under subsection (1).

(3) Failure to give information

  Where the information required by subsection (1) is not furnished, the Registrar shall by a further notice fix a reasonable time after which, if the information is not furnished, he may expunge the registration of the trade-mark.

Section 45.  

(1) Registrar may request evidence of user

  The Registrar may at any time and, at the written request made after three years from the date of the registration of a trade-mark by any person who pays the prescribed fee shall, unless the Registrar sees good reason to the contrary, give notice to the registered owner of the trade-mark requiring the registered owner to furnish within three months an affidavit or a statutory declaration showing, with respect to each of the wares or services specified in the registration, whether the trade-mark was in use in Canada at any time during the three year period immediately preceding the date of the notice and, if not, the date when it was last so in use and the reason for the absence of such use since that date.

(2) Form of evidence

  The Registrar shall not receive any evidence other than the affidavit or statutory declaration, but may hear representations made by or on behalf of the registered owner of the trade-mark or by or on behalf of the person at whose request the notice was given.

(3) Effect of non-use

  Where, by reason of the evidence furnished to the Registrar or the failure to furnish any evidence, it appears to the Registrar that a trade-mark, either with respect to all of the wares or services specified in the registration or with respect to any of those wares or services, was not used in Canada at any time during the three year period immediately preceding the date of the notice and that the absence of use has not been due to special circumstances that excuse the absence of use, the registration of the trade-mark is liable to be expunged or amended accordingly.

(4) Notice to owner

  When the Registrar reaches a decision whether or not the registration of a trade-mark ought to be expunged or amended, he shall give notice of his decision with the reasons therefor to the registered owner of the trade-mark and to the person at whose request the notice referred to in subsection (1) was given.

(5) Action by Registrar

  The Registrar shall act in accordance with his decision if no appeal therefrom is taken within the time limited by this Act or, if an appeal is taken, shall act in accordance with the final judgment given in the appeal.

Renewal of Registrations

Section 46.  

(1) Renewal

  The registration of a trade-mark that is on the register by virtue of this Act is subject to renewal within a period of fifteen years from the day of the registration or last renewal.

(2) Notice to renew

  If the registration of a trade-mark has been on the register without renewal for the period specified in subsection (1), the Registrar shall send a notice to the registered owner and to the registered owner's representative for service, if any, stating that if within six months after the date of the notice the prescribed renewal fee is not paid, the registration will be expunged.

(3) Failure to renew

  If within the period of six months specified in the notice, which period shall not be extended, the prescribed renewal fee is not paid, the Registrar shall expunge the registration.

(4) Effective date of renewal

  When the prescribed fee for a renewal of any trade-mark registration under this section is paid within the time limited for the payment thereof, the renewal takes effect as of the day next following the expiration of the period specified in subsection (1).

Extensions of Time

Section 47.  

(1) Extensions of time

  If, in any case, the Registrar is satisfied that the circumstances justify an extension of the time fixed by this Act or prescribed by the regulations for the doing of any act, he may, except as in this Act otherwise provided, extend the time after such notice to other persons and on such terms as he may direct.

(2) Conditions

  An extension applied for after the expiration of the time fixed for the doing of an act or the time extended by the Registrar under subsection (1) shall not be granted unless the prescribed fee is paid and the Registrar is satisfied that the failure to do the act or apply for the extension within that time or the extended time was not reasonably avoidable.

Transfer

Section 48.  

(1) Trade-mark transferable

  A trade-mark, whether registered or unregistered, is transferable, and deemed always to have been transferable, either in connection with or separately from the goodwill of the business and in respect of either all or some of the wares or services in association with which it has been used.

(2) Where two or more persons interested

  Nothing in subsection (1) prevents a trade-mark from being held not to be distinctive if as a result of a transfer thereof there subsisted rights in two or more persons to the use of confusing trade-marks and the rights were exercised by those persons.

(3) Registration of transfer

  The Registrar shall register the transfer of any registered trade-mark on being furnished with evidence satisfactory to him of the transfer and the information that would be required by paragraph 30(g) in an application by the transferee to register the trade-mark.

Change of Purpose in Use of Mark

Section 49. Change of purpose

If a mark is used by a person as a trade-mark for any of the purposes or in any of the manners mentioned in the definition "certification mark" or "trade-mark" in section 2, it shall not be held invalid merely on the ground that the person or a predecessor in title uses it or has used it for any other of those purposes or in any other of those manners.

Licences

Section 50.  

(1) Licence to use trade-mark

  For the purposes of this Act, if an entity is licensed by or with the authority of the owner of a trade-mark to use the trade-mark in a country and the owner has, under the licence, direct or indirect control of the character or quality of the wares or services, then the use, advertisement or display of the trade-mark in that country as or in a trade-mark, trade-name or otherwise by that entity has, and is deemed always to have had, the same effect as such a use, advertisement or display of the trade-mark in that country by the owner .

(2) Idem

  For the purposes of this Act, to the extent that public notice is given of the fact that the use of a trade-mark is a licensed use and of the identity of the owner, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proven, that the use is licensed by the owner of the trade-mark and the character or quality of the wares or services is under the control of the owner.

(3) Owner may be required to take proceedings

  Subject to any agreement subsisting between an owner of a trade-mark and a licensee of the trade-mark, the licensee may call on the owner to take proceedings for infringement thereof, and, if the owner refuses or neglects to do so within two months after being so called on, the licensee may institute proceedings for infringement in the licensee's own name as if the licensee were the owner, making the owner a defendant.

Section 51.  

(1) Use of trade-mark by related companies

  Where a company and the owner of a trade-mark that is used in Canada by that owner in association with a pharmaceutical preparation are related companies, the use by the company of the trade-mark, or a trade-mark confusing therewith, in association with a pharmaceutical preparation that at the time of that use or at any time thereafter,

  has the same effect, for all purposes of this Act, as a use of the trade-mark or the confusing trade-mark, as the case may be, by that owner.

(2) Where difference in composition

  Subsection (1) does not apply to any use of a trade-mark or a confusing trade-mark by a company referred to in that subsection in association with a pharmaceutical preparation after such time, if any, as that pharmaceutical preparation is declared by the Minister of Health, by notice published in the Canada Gazette, to be sufficiently different in its composition from the pharmaceutical preparation in association with which the trade-mark is used in Canada by the owner referred to in subsection (1) as to be likely to result in a hazard to health.

(3) Definition of "pharmaceutical preparation"

  In this section, "pharmaceutical preparation" includes

  but does not include any such substance or mixture of substances that is the same or substantially the same as a substance or mixture of substances that is a proprietary medicine within the meaning from time to time assigned to that expression by regulations made pursuant to the Food and Drugs Act.

Legal Proceedings

Section 52. Definitions

In sections 53 to 53.3,

"court" means the Federal Court or the superior court of a province;

"duties" has the same meaning as in the Customs Act;

"Minister" means the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness;

"release" has the same meaning as in the Customs Act.

Section 53.  

(1) Proceedings for interim custody

  Where a court is satisfied, on application of any interested person, that any registered trade-mark or any trade-name has been applied to any wares that have been imported into Canada or are about to be distributed in Canada in such a manner that the distribution of the wares would be contrary to this Act, or that any indication of a place of origin has been unlawfully applied to any wares, the court may make an order for the interim custody of the wares, pending a final determination of the legality of their importation or distribution in an action commenced within such time as is prescribed by the order.

(2) Security

  Before making an order under subsection (1), the court may require the applicant to furnish security, in an amount fixed by the court, to answer any damages that may by reason of the order be sustained by the owner, importer or consignee of the wares and for any amount that may become chargeable against the wares while they remain in custody under the order.

(3) Lien for charges

  Where, by the judgment in any action under this section finally determining the legality of the importation or distribution of the wares, their importation or distribution is forbidden, either absolutely or on condition, any lien for charges against them that arose prior to the date of an order made under this section has effect only so far as may be consistent with the due execution of the judgment.

(4) Prohibition of imports

  Where in any action under this section the court finds that the importation is or the distribution would be contrary to this Act, it may make an order prohibiting the future importation of wares to which the trade-mark, trade-name or indication of origin has been applied.

(5) How application made

  An application referred to in subsection (1) may be made in an action or otherwise, and either on notice or ex parte.

(6) Limitation

  No proceedings may be taken under subsection (1) for the interim custody of wares by the Minister if proceedings for the detention of the wares by the Minister may be taken under section 53.1.

Section s 53.1  

(1) Proceedings for detention by Minister

  Where a court is satisfied, on application by the owner of a registered trade-mark, that any wares to which the trade-mark has been applied are about to be imported into Canada or have been imported into Canada but have not yet been released, and that the distribution of the wares in Canada would be contrary to this Act, the court may make an order

(2) How application made

  An application referred to in subsection (1) may be made in an action or otherwise, and either on notice or ex parte, except that it must always be made on notice to the Minister.

(3) Court may require security

  Before making an order under subsection (1), the court may require the applicant to furnish security, in an amount fixed by the court,

(4) Application for directions

  The Minister may apply to the court for directions in implementing an order made under subsection (1).

(5) Minister may allow inspection

  The Minister may give the applicant or importer of the detained wares an opportunity to inspect them for the purpose of substantiating or refuting, as the case may be, the applicant's claim.

(6) Where applicant fails to commence an action

  Unless an order made under subsection (1) provides otherwise, the Minister shall, subject to the Customs Act and to any other Act of Parliament that prohibits, controls or regulates the importation or exportation of goods, release the wares without further notice to the applicant if, two weeks after the applicant has been notified under paragraph (1)(b), the Minister has not been notified that an action has been commenced for a final determination by the court of the legality of the importation or distribution of the wares.

(7) Where court finds in plaintiff's favour

  Where, in an action commenced under this section, the court finds that the importation is or the distribution would be contrary to this Act, the court may make any order that it considers appropriate in the circumstances, including an order that the wares be destroyed or exported, or that they be delivered up to the plaintiff as the plaintiff's property absolutely.

Section 53.2 Power of court to grant relief

Where a court is satisfied, on application of any interested person, that any act has been done contrary to this Act, the court may make any order that it considers appropriate in the circumstances, including an order providing for relief by way of injunction and the recovery of damages or profits and for the destruction, exportation or other disposition of any offending wares, packages, labels and advertising material and of any dies used in connection therewith.

Section 53.3 Re-exportation of wares

Where in any proceeding under section 53.1 or 53.2 the court finds

  the court may not, other than in exceptional circumstances, make an order under that section requiring or permitting the wares to be exported in an unaltered state.

Section 54.  

(1) Evidence

  Evidence of any document in the official custody of the Registrar or of any extract therefrom may be given by the production of a copy thereof purporting to be certified to be true by the Registrar.

(2) Idem

  A copy of any entry in the register purporting to be certified to be true by the Registrar is evidence of the facts set out therein.

(3) Idem

  A copy of the record of the registration of a trade-mark purporting to be certified to be true by the Registrar is evidence of the facts set out therein and that the person named therein as owner is the registered owner of the trade-mark for the purposes and within the territorial area therein defined.

(4) Idem

  A copy of any entry made or documents filed under the authority of any Act in force before July 1, 1954 relating to trade-marks, certified under the authority of that Act, is admissible in evidence and has the same probative force as a copy certified by the Registrar under this Act as provided in this section.

Section 55. Jurisdiction of Federal Court

The Federal Court has jurisdiction to entertain any action or proceeding for the enforcement of any of the provisions of this Act or of any right or remedy conferred or defined thereby.

Section 56.  

(1) Appeal

  An appeal lies to the Federal Court from any decision of the Registrar under this Act within two months from the date on which notice of the decision was dispatched by the Registrar or within such further time as the Court may allow, either before or after the expiration of the two months.

(2) Procedure

  An appeal under subsection (1) shall be made by way of notice of appeal filed with the Registrar and in the Federal Court.

(3) Notice to owner

  The appellant shall, within the time limited or allowed by subsection (1), send a copy of the notice by registered mail to the registered owner of any trade-mark that has been referred to by the Registrar in the decision complained of and to every other person who was entitled to notice of the decision.

(4) Public notice

  The Federal Court may direct that public notice of the hearing of an appeal under subsection (1) and of the matters at issue therein be given in such manner as it deems proper.

(5) Additional evidence

  On an appeal under subsection (1), evidence in addition to that adduced before the Registrar may be adduced and the Federal Court may exercise any discretion vested in the Registrar.

Section 57.  

(1) Exclusive jurisdiction of Federal Court

  The Federal Court has exclusive original jurisdiction, on the application of the Registrar or of any person interested, to order that any entry in the register be struck out or amended on the ground that at the date of the application the entry as it appears on the register does not accurately express or define the existing rights of the person appearing to be the registered owner of the mark.

(2) Restriction

  No person is entitled to institute under this section any proceeding calling into question any decision given by the Registrar of which that person had express notice and from which he had a right to appeal.

Section 58. How proceedings instituted

An application under section 57 shall be made either by the filing of an originating notice of motion, by counter-claim in an action for the infringement of the trade-mark, or by statement of claim in an action claiming additional relief under this Act.

Section 59.  

(1) Notice to set out grounds

  Where an appeal is taken under section 56 by the filing of a notice of appeal, or an application is made under section 57 by the filing of an originating notice of motion, the notice shall set out full particulars of the grounds on which relief is sought.

(2) Reply

  Any person on whom a copy of the notice described in subsection (1) has been served and who intends to contest the appeal or application, as the case may be, shall file and serve within the prescribed time or such further time as the court may allow a reply setting out full particulars of the grounds on which he relies.

(3) Hearing

  The proceedings on an appeal or application shall be heard and determined summarily on evidence adduced by affidavit unless the court otherwise directs, in which event it may order that any procedure permitted by its rules and practice be made available to the parties, including the introduction of oral evidence generally or in respect of one or more issues specified in the order.

Section 60.  

(1) Registrar to transmit documents

  Subject to subsection (2), when any appeal or application has been made to the Federal Court under any of the provisions of this Act, the Registrar shall, at the request of any of the parties to the proceedings and on the payment of the prescribed fee, transmit to the Court all documents on file in the Registrar's office relating to the matters in question in those proceedings, or copies of those documents certified by the Registrar.

(2) Register of registered users

  The transmission of documents on which entries in the register required to be kept under paragraph 26(1)(b) are based is subject to the provisions of subsection 50(6) of the Trade-marks Act, as it read immediately before section 69 of the Intellectual Property Law Improvement Act came into force.

Section 61. Judgments to be filed

An officer of the Registry of the Federal Court shall file with the Registrar a certified copy of every judgment or order made by the Federal Court, the Federal Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court of Canada relating to any trade-mark on the register.

General

Section 62. Administration

This Act shall be administered by the Minister of Industry.

Section 63.  

(1) Registrar

  There shall be a Registrar of Trade-marks, appointed by the Governor in Council, to hold office during pleasure, who shall be paid such annual salary as the Governor in Council determines and shall be responsible to the Deputy Minister of Industry.

(2) Acting registrar

  When the Registrar is absent or unable to act or when the office of Registrar is vacant, his powers shall be exercised and his duties and functions performed in the capacity of acting registrar by such other officer as may be designated by the Minister of Industry.

(3) Assistants

  The Registrar may, after consultation with the Minister, delegate to any person he deems qualified any of his powers, duties and functions under this Act, except the power to delegate under this subsection.

(4) Appeal

  Any decision under this Act of a person authorized to make the decision pursuant to subsection (3) may be appealed in the like manner and subject to the like conditions as a decision of the Registrar under this Act.

Section 64. Publication of registrations

The Registrar shall cause to be published periodically particulars of the registrations made and extended from time to time under this Act, and shall in such publication give particulars of any rulings made by him that are intended to serve as precedents for the determination of similar questions thereafter arising.

Section 65. Regulations

The Governor in Council may make regulations for carrying into effect the purposes and provisions of this Act and, in particular, may make regulations with respect to the following matters:

Section 66.  

(1) Time limit deemed extended

  Where any time limit or period of limitation specified under or pursuant to this Act expires on a day when the Office of the Registrar of Trade-marks is closed for business, the time limit or period of limitation shall be deemed to be extended to the next day when the Office is open for business.

(2) When Trade-marks Office closed for business

  The Office of the Registrar of Trade-marks shall be closed for business on Saturdays and holidays and on such other days as the Minister by order declares that it shall be closed for business.

(3) Publication

  Every order made by the Minister under subsection (2) shall be published in the Trade-marks Journal as soon as possible after the making thereof.

Newfoundland

Section 67.  

(1) Registration of trade-mark before April 1, 1949

  The registration of a trade-mark under the laws of Newfoundland before April 1, 1949 has the same force and effect in the Province of Newfoundland as if Newfoundland had not become part of Canada, and all rights and privileges acquired under or by virtue of those laws may continue to be exercised or enjoyed in the Province of Newfoundland as if Newfoundland had not become part of Canada.

(2) Application for trade-marks pending April 1, 1949

  The laws of Newfoundland as they existed immediately before April 1, 1949 continue to apply in respect of applications for the registration of trade-marks under the laws of Newfoundland pending at that time and any trade-marks registered under those applications shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to have been registered under the laws of Newfoundland before April 1, 1949.

Section 68. Use of trade-mark or trade-name before April 1, 1949

For the purposes of this Act, the use or making known of a trade-mark or the use of a trade-name in Newfoundland before April 1, 1949 shall not be deemed to be a use or marking known of such trade-mark or a use of such trade-name in Canada before that date.


This page has been generated using Mincov Legal Markup Language (“MLML”). While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy and currency of this document, Mincov Law Corporation makes no warranty, representation or undertaking, expressed or implied, nor does it assume any liability, direct or indirect, or responsibility for the accuracy, currency, usefulness or continued availability of this document.The official version of this document is located at http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/T-13/.

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